This report is part of a wider research undertaken in six African countries on local governance and leadership. The main focus of the research was to assess the relationship between the variety of local governance systems and their performance, as gauged by their provision of public goods that are normally under-provided. Furthermore, it was to identify the relationship between the ways local

Leaderships are constituted and the ways they perform; how formal rules and defacto norms compete with, supplement or complement one another to create functional hybrid orders and positive outcomes.


In Uganda, the study homed in on three public goods: Maternal Health (safe motherhood); Water; and Sanitation and Hygiene. Carried out in Rakai and Masaka districts from May 2010 to March 2011, the ten months study used ethnographic methods for investigation. This mainly involved observation, formal and informal conversations with both key informants as well as with other members of the community. Hence overt and covert observation techniques were widely applied during data collection, but without total disregard for other traditional PRAs.

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