Since inception of Universal Primary Education (UPE) in 1997, the program has registered some achievements, most notably the substantial increment in pupils’ enrolment from around 2.7 million pupils in 1997 to over eight million pupils in 2014.1 The number of classrooms built increased from 84,628 classrooms in 2002 to 103,186 classrooms in 2014; the number of primary school teachers hired has also increased over the years from 113,232 teachers on the payroll in 2002 to 131,310 in 2014; and the gender enrolment gap ratio has also narrowed tremendously with the proportion of girls to boys now at 50:50; up from 44.5 to 55.5 in 1993. Large quantities of learning materials have also been supplied in schools, thus reducing the pupil to textbook ratio.

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